Gout is a disease characterized by metabolic disorders. With it, uric acid salts are deposited in the joints. Gout is a fairly rare disease - there are three cases per thousand people. The disease affects men over the age of forty, in women it manifests itself in menopause. Gout attacks all joints, from the joints of the hands to the joints of the feet.
The main symptom of gout is joint inflammation. Attacks of the disease occur in the morning or evening, expressed as intense pain in the affected area. The temperature in the joint area increases, the skin begins to turn red and glow.
In the treatment of gout, the most important role is played by therapeutic nutrition, the purpose of which is to reduce the level of uric acid compounds in the body. With gouty arthritis, purine metabolism is disturbed, which leads to arthritis and the development of various types of urolithiasis (for example, uraturia). To normalize this exchange, diet number 6, developed by the professor, is used.
Features of nutrition for men
If purines enter the body in large quantities, the production of uric acid increases, its excretion through the kidneys slows down. As a result, the level of uric acid in the blood increases, and its crystals - urate - begin to be deposited in the tissues of the joints. The most purine-rich are meat and fish products, smoked meats, strong tea, coffee and cocoa.
Men get gout almost 10 times more often than women. In addition, representatives of the stronger sex are faced with the manifestation of this disease much earlier. If in women it manifests, as a rule, after 50 years, then men experience the first attack of gout in the age range from 30 to 40 years.
These gender differences are mainly related to nutrition. Men eat more food, in addition, they eat a lot of meat products and hot spices, often wash them down with alcoholic beverages. All this leads to a significant increase in the level of uric acid in the blood, which is constantly maintained. A gout attack occurs, as a rule, suddenly, and an overabundance of food, hypothermia, or the common cold can trigger it.
Gout can affect any joint, but in most cases the big toe is affected. The lesion is usually unilateral, and the first metatarsophalangeal joint of one foot becomes inflamed. The course of the disease, especially in the early stages, is usually paroxysmal. The duration of attacks varies from a few hours to a week. When gout becomes chronic, the pain can be constant.
Table 6 is recommended during remission, in the absence of severe symptoms. On attack days, the 6E diet is indicated, which will also be useful for obese patients. This should be followed for a few days while the pain persists. At the end of the attack, return to diet number 6 again.
The hypopurine diet for gout is based on alkalization, that is, alkaline foods are introduced into the diet - plant foods and dairy. If there are no contraindications, it is recommended to drink more water - the daily fluid intake should be an average of 2. 5 liters.
Prohibited foods include products that contain oxalic acid — especially plenty in spinach and rhubarb. The amount of salt is limited to 10 g/day, the consumption of protein and fat is reduced. If you are overweight, it is advisable to reduce the amount of carbohydrate foods.
Meat and fish must first be boiled, and then cooked from casseroles, roasts or rolls. During cooking, harmful substances get into the broth, so you should not use it for cooking first courses. Soups and borscht are cooked only in vegetable broth with the addition of cereal, pasta or milk.
The classic system of therapeutic nutrition involves fractional nutrition, you need to eat at least four times a day. So that the load on the digestive tract and excretory organs will be optimal. At the same time, the calorie content of the diet No. 6 is 2500-2700 kcal, diet No. 6e - 1900-1950 kcal.
With the right menu, the diet will be balanced and complete, and reducing the consumption of foods containing purines will not bring negative consequences.
It is better to cook food for a couple or stew, bake in the oven. It is better to exclude fried foods altogether, especially in the acute period. The temperature of the finished product does not matter - you can eat both hot and cold, but warm dishes are best absorbed.
Diet number 6 is recommended, as a rule, until long-term remission occurs. This period for each patient may be different - one or two months will be enough to restore health, while for others it will take several years.
Allowed and prohibited products
The list of products is structured so that a person receives a sufficient amount of fat, protein, carbohydrates, as well as vitamins and minerals. The daily protein norm according to the diet No. 6 is 80-90 g, fat - 80-90 g, carbohydrates - from 350 to 400 g.
Protein requirements are mostly met by dairy products, about 25% fat is found in vegetable oils, and most carbohydrates can be obtained from fruits and sugar. When diet number 6 is observed, the body receives approximately 150 mg of vitamin C, 1. 5 mg of thiamine, 3. 5 g of potassium, 0. 75 g of calcium, and 0. 5 mg of retinol per day.
The table of allowed foods for gout:
|Flour products, bread||Wheat, wheat and bran bread|
|First courses, cereals, sauces||Soups with the addition of cereals, vegetables, vermicelli, milk; cereal milk porridge; sauces based on milk, sour cream, tomato or vegetable juice; mixed and pureed boiled vegetables, fresh vegetable salads, vinaigrette|
|Poultry||Lean pork and beef, rabbit, chicken, turkey|
|Fish||Pike, pike perch, asp, cod, pollock, bream, as well as all seafood - shrimp, squid, clams, octopus|
|Dairy products||When buying, you should pay attention to the fat content of the product: kefir - 1-2%, cottage cheese - 3%, sour cream - 10-15%|
|Cheese||Brynza, mozzarella, suluguni, ricotta and soft curd cheese without salt|
|Egg||Chicken (1 pc per day) or quail eggs (no more than 4 pcs per day) can be boiled, baked, boiled|
|cereals||Everything except oatmeal and whole grains|
|Vegetables||Potatoes, corn, beets, onions, garlic, cabbage, eggplant, tomatoes, squash, and zucchini|
|Greenery||Dill and parsley|
|Butter||All kinds of vegetables and cream|
|fruits||Citrus fruits, strawberries, pears, green apples, persimmons, apricots, dates, cherries, cranberries - fresh, baked and dried|
|crazy||All types, except peanuts, but not more than 30 g/day|
|spice||Cinnamon, vanilla, bay leaf, citric acid, vinegar|
|Drink||Kisses, compotes, fruit and berry stews, fruit drinks, green and low brewed black teas, milky fruit shakes and smoothies, vegetable and fruit juices (diluted with water), chicory drinks, alkaline mineral water, kvass|
|Sweet||Marmalade, caramel, honey, jam, marshmallows, marmalade, marmalade and marmalade, protein meringues, marshmallows|
It should be noted that meat and fish should not be eaten often - 2-3 times a week is enough. In addition, one serving should not exceed 150 grams of meat and 160 grams of fish. It should also be borne in mind that the broth in which this product is boiled should not be eaten. The same goes for seafood soup.
If using whole milk, it is better to dilute it with water first. It is better to add butter to the finished dish, and not to use it in its pure form. Particularly useful among vegetables are potatoes and cucumbers, as they contain potassium. This element helps remove uric acid from the body naturally.
Animal fats are recommended to be replaced with vegetable fats to the maximum so as not to burden the digestive tract and kidneys. Many approved foods have the ability to remove excess uric acid and reduce inflammation.
Some vegetables and fruits can be consumed, but in limited quantities. These include radishes, radishes, cauliflower, green onions, bell peppers, asparagus, turnips, celery, and prunes. It is also impossible to abuse nuts, mushrooms, pickles, herbs and sausages.
Previously, doctors forbade eating tomatoes because of their oxalic acid content. Today, this vegetable is considered one of the most useful for gout in the legs. The percentage of acid in tomatoes is negligible, but they contain vitamins, minerals and organic acids.
Ripe tomatoes are a great source of vitamin C (contain almost as much as oranges), Boneand B2, PP, K and carotene, as well as potassium, phosphorus and iron. Thanks to this composition, the immune system is strengthened, metabolic processes are normalized and the intensity of inflammation during an attack is reduced.
Reference: tomatoes bring maximum benefits after heat treatment and in combination with vegetable fats.
If you eliminate harmful foods, i. e. , rich in purines, from your diet, this will immediately affect your well-being. The frequency and intensity of gout attacks will decrease, the urinary and cardiovascular systems will work normally.
So, from the daily menu does not include:
|flour products||Butter bread, cakes, pastries, eclairs|
|First course and sauce||Meat, fish, mushroom broth; sorrel, peas, lentil and pea soup, mayonnaise and sauces based on it|
|Poultry||All kinds of sausages, mutton, beef and lamb, fatty pork, offal, stews|
|Fish||Fatty fish – sardines, herring, anchovies, tuna, mackerel, trout, salmon and roe|
|Cheese||Spicy and salty cheese|
|fruits||Grapes, raspberries, figs, viburnum|
|herbs and spices||Mustard, radish, chili|
|Drink||Strong tea, coffee, cocoa, alcohol of any strength|
It should be noted that the purines in alcoholic beverages do not break down into uric acid when ingested. However, they are able to suppress the synthesis of the hormone vasopressin, which maintains normal fluid levels. With its active production, kidney function is stimulated, as excess uric acid is immediately excreted.
After drinking a drink containing alcohol, the production of vasopressin decreases, and the person suffers from dehydration. The volume decreases and the viscosity of circulating blood increases, which causes an increase in uric acid levels.
In addition, the amount of moisture in the cartilage tissue decreases to a critical level, due to which it loses its firmness and elasticity. Cartilage becomes dry and cracked, unable to withstand ordinary loads. As a result, the joints become increasingly inflamed and painful.
Reference: rheumatologists consider vodka relatively safe, because it contains no purines. However, you can drink it in very small amounts - no more than 50 grams.
Diet number 6 provides 1 day of loading and unloading per week. On this day, a single diet is observed, consisting only of vegetables and fruits, or sour-milk products. You need to eat the same portions, avoid strong hunger pangs, and drink equal volumes of water and drinks.
The size of one serving is approximately 150 grams. For example, one day you can eat about 400 grams of cottage cheese and drink liters of kefir. Another option is 1 - 1. 5 kg of apples or oranges. If you plan to eat vegetables, then you should choose only one variety (except radish and sorrel). Vegetables are used boiled, stewed, roasted or raw, as well as in juice form.
Mineral water today can be purchased in any supermarket, drinking it is useful for people with pathologies of the endocrine system and metabolic disorders.
Some people are not very fond of vegetables and dairy products. In this case, you can eat rice and apples throughout the day. Rice (75 g) should be boiled in milk diluted with water and eaten in small portions throughout the day. Apples can be eaten fresh or cooked in compote, but without added sugar. It is allowed to eat no more than 3 apples a day.
Reference: fasting is strictly prohibited, as it causes a sharp increase in the concentration of uric acid in the blood.
How to eat with gout attacks
If the attack has begun, a strict diet is necessary, but not for more than 3 days. For this period, it is first necessary to exclude meat and fish. With a long course of gout, fasting should be done 2-3 times a week.
A full menu for one day might look like this:
- 1 breakfast - half a glass of rosehip infusion, decoction of chicory or alkaline mineral water;
- 2 breakfasts - a serving of rice or semolina porridge, a glass of milk;
- snack (1-2 hours after the 2nd breakfast) - a glass of strawberry jelly or a few slices of fresh strawberries;
- lunch - a portion of mashed vegetable soup, a glass of apple compote;
- afternoon snack - a glass of carrot juice or tomato juice;
- dinner - a glass of bifilin, fermented baked milk or kefir;
- before bedtime - lightly brewed black or green tea with the addition of milk and honey.
When the attack passes, you need to gradually expand the diet and include boiled meat in the diet. For better assimilation, it is recommended to pass them through a meat grinder or steam cutlets, meatballs and meatballs.
The seven day menu for diet number 6
Proper nutrition, which is recommended for people with gout, is diverse. In addition, all the recipes are very simple, and the diet food is delicious and satisfying. Everyone can choose from the allowed products that they like the most.
- For breakfast: cheesecake with honey, chamomile tea.
- For lunch: rice soup with potatoes, buckwheat with boiled chicken, a slice of black bread.
- For an afternoon snack: apple and carrot casserole, a glass of rosehips.
- For dinner: baked eggplant, boiled veal, compote.
- Before bed: a glass of fermented baked milk.
- For breakfast: scrambled eggs from 3-4 quail eggs, milk sausage, fresh cucumber salad, chicory drink.
- For lunch: milk soup with pasta, potato pancakes with sour cream, green tea.
- For an afternoon snack: whole grain bread, jam, a glass of alkaline mineral water.
- For dinner: steamed cod, boiled mixed vegetables with carrots and zucchini, bran bread.
- Before bed: condensed milk.
Milk soup with vermicelli is low in calories, but is an excellent source of protein and complex carbohydrates. In addition, this dish contains potassium, iodine, manganese, iron, copper, calcium, vitamins B, C and D.
- For breakfast: boiled eggs, rice porridge with milk, sandwiches with white bread and cheese.
- For lunch: mashed potatoes with boiled turkey, cherry jelly.
- For an afternoon snack: cottage cheese with nuts and grated prunes, a glass of milk.
- For dinner: stuffed peppers with sour cream sauce.
- Before going to bed: a glass of kefir.
- For breakfast: apple salad and grated carrots, white bread toast with marmalade, weak tea.
- For lunch: lean borscht with sour cream, beef cutlet with millet porridge, black bread.
- For an afternoon snack: cottage cheese pasta made from mashed cottage cheese with added vanillin, butter and sugar. To prepare it, you will need 200 grams of cottage cheese, 15-20 grams of butter, 2. 5 tablespoons of sugar and a little vanillin. You can add sour cream or fruit to the finished pasta.
- For dinner: baked potatoes with cheese. Such a casserole is made simply - the potatoes are cut into thin plates and placed with salt in small pieces. Salt, pour vegetable oil and put grated cheese on top. Cover the form with foil and put in the oven for half an hour. Remove the foil 5-10 minutes before it's ready.
- Before bed: chamomile tea.
- For breakfast: sandwich with doctor's sausage, pear jelly.
- For lunch: beetroot soup, sour cream if desired, vermicelli with chicken meatballs.
- For an afternoon snack: carrot slices, tea.
- For dinner: boiled chicken eggs, grilled zucchini, orange juice.
- Before bed: an apple.
- For breakfast: buckwheat with diluted milk, cottage cheese with vermicelli, rosehip broth.
- For lunch: beef goulash with boiled potatoes, tea with lemon.
- For an afternoon snack: a glass of carrot juice.
- For dinner: barley and vegetable soup, cheese sandwich, compote.
- Before going to bed: decoction of wheat bran.
- For breakfast: potato pancakes with sour cream, a glass of milk.
- For lunch: lean roast pork with boiled cabbage, fruit jelly.
- For an afternoon snack: cottage cheese pudding.
- For dinner: roasted pumpkin with honey.
- Before bed: cranberry juice.
Cottage cheese pudding is a delicious, easy-to-digest food that is rich in animal protein.
Reminder: do not forget that one day it will have to be disassembled.
This is an example of a 7-day diet recommended for gout sufferers. However, such nutrition will also benefit a healthy person: fractional food, a minimum of animal fat and a large amount of vegetables and fruits have a beneficial effect on the digestive tract, and also contribute to the normalization of body weight.
Thanks to diet number 6, uric acid is removed from the body in a timely manner, thereby preventing inflammation in the joints. The use of foods with low or no purine content significantly increases the effectiveness of drug therapy.
As the reaction of urine shifts to the alkaline side, the breakdown of kidney stones (stones) is accelerated and facilitated, and they leave the body painlessly. Proper nutrition significantly reduces or eliminates pain and allows you to achieve a stable remission. Be healthy!